Co-occurring disorders are an expectation, not an exception.
All individuals with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders are not the same.
Empathic, hopeful, and integrated treatment relationships are one of the most important contributors to treatment success in any setting.
Case management and care must be balanced with empathic detachment, expectation, contracting, consequences, and contingent learning for each consumer, and in each service setting.
When psychiatric and substance disorders coexist, both disorders shall be considered primary.
Addiction, mental illness, and trauma can be treated within the philosophical framework of a recovery model in which interventions are not only diagnosis-specific, but also specific to phase of recovery and stage of change.
There is no single correct intervention.
Clinical outcomes must be individualized.